Logic of Tao Philosophy  
Tao according to Tao

Tao listening to Tao:

 Tao Philosophy according to Lao-Tzu


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Excerpt:  The Principle of Oneness

From the analysis of the Chapter One, we discover that Lao-tzu indeed uses extremely laconic verses to show the basic logic of Tao philosophy. This logic structure is centered at the concept of “Heng,” and not at the concept of Wu. This logic principle is Heng and "Oneness”; we shall simply call this the Principle of Oneness恆一原則:


The Principle of Oneness

Heng Tao is the whole natural order in nature. This order may be represented by the characteristics of its two modes of manifestation, Heng Wu and Heng Yu. Although Heng Wu and Heng Yu have their own characteristics, they appear at the same time and each independently and completely reflects the same holistic order of nature. Therefore, manifestations have equivalent reality, so Lao-tzu describes them as “both appear at the same time, as different names to describe the same Tao.” Each actuality is independent, but they are internally connected through the objects and cannot be separated.


This Principle of Oneness is the essence of Tao philosophy. It is also the foundation of the logic of Tao philosophy. This reflects the fact that "a reality cannot be divided."

Key Words: logic of Tao philosophy, You-Wu Debates, one-and-many relation, principle of oneness, trinity, Tai Chi, theory of forms, dualism, process philosophy

A Universal Principle


The Principle of Oneness is not only in Tao philosophy. The concept of Oneness is fundamental in all philosophy. In the West, this concept begins with Parmenides’ observation of nature, and has become the basic condition for all reality. As Hegel observes, all reality must have wholeness. This concept of Oneness also appears in the Buddhist philosophy. We shall try to construct, based on this principle, a logic model for Tao philosophy..


The Tao Te Ching : A Logical Interpretation

A new interpretation of the Tao Te Ching based on the Principle of Oneness. It will show the internal consistency of Tao philosophy and the way to avoid errors in the interpretation of the Tao Te Ching.